1 European bison having a smaller and higher head than the North American bison [syn: wisent, Bison bonasus]
2 large recently extinct long-horned European wild ox; considered one of the ancestors of domestic cattle [syn: urus, Bos primigenius]
EtymologyGerman Aurochs, an early variant of Auerochse < Old High German ūrohso < ūr (primitive) + ohso (ox).
- An extinct European mammal, Bos primigenius, the ancestor of domestic cattle.
- The European bison (Bison bonasus, or Europæus).
- Finnish: alkuhärkä
- See Ur (rune) for the rune.
English-language nomenclature variationsAccording to the Paleontologisk Museum, University of Oslo, aurochs evolved in India some two million years ago, migrated into the Middle East and further into Asia, and reached Europe about 250,000 years ago.http://www.toyen.uio.no/palmus/galleri/montre/english/a31922.htm They were once considered a distinct species from modern European cattle (Bos taurus), but more recent taxonomy has rejected this distinction. The South Asian domestic cattle, or zebu, descended from a different group of aurochs at the edge of the Thar Desert in India; this would explain zebu resistance to drought. Domestic yak, gayal and Javan cattle do not descend from aurochs. Modern cattle have become much smaller than their wild forebears: the height at the withers of a large domesticated cow is about 1.5 meters (5 feet, 15 hands), whereas aurochs were about 1.75 meters (5.75 feet, 17 hands). Aurochs also had several features rarely seen in modern cattle, such as lyre-shaped horns set at a forward angle, a pale stripe down the spine, and sexual dimorphism of coat color. Males were black with a pale eel stripe or finching down the spine, while females and calves were reddish (these colours are still found in a few domesticated cattle breeds, such as Jersey cattle). Aurochs were also known to have very aggressive temperaments and killing one was seen as a great act of courage in ancient cultures.
SubspeciesAt one time there existed three aurochs subspecies, namely Bos primigenius namadicus (Falconer, 1859) that occurred in India, the Bos primigenius mauretanicus (Thomas, 1881) from North Africa and naturally the Bos primigenius primigenius (Bojanus, 1827) from Europe and the Middle East. Only the European subspecies has survived until recent times.
Domestication and extinctionDomestication of the aurochs began in the southern Caucasus and northern Mesopotamia from about the 6th millennium BC, while genetic evidence suggests that aurochs were independently domesticated in northern Africa and in India. Domestication caused dramatic changes to the physiology of the creatures, to the extent that domestic cattle have been regarded as a separate species (see above).
Genetic analysis of aurochs bones and of modern cattle has provided many insights about the aurochs. Though aurochs became extinct in Britain during the Bronze age, analysis of bones from aurochs that lived contemporaneously with domesticated cattle there showed no genetic contribution to modern breeds. As a result, modern European cattle are now thought to be descended directly from the Near East domestication process. Indian cattle (zebu), although domesticated eight to ten thousand years ago, are related to aurochs which diverged from the Near Eastern ones some 200,000 years ago. The African cattle are thought to descend from aurochs more closely related to the Near Eastern ones. The Near East and African aurochs groups are thought to have split some 25,000 years ago, probably 15,000 years before domestication. The "Turano-Mongolian" type of cattle now found in Northern China, Mongolia, Korea and Japan may represent a fourth domestication event (and a third event among Bos taurus–type aurochs). This group may have diverged from the Near East group some 35,000 years ago. Whether these separate genetic populations would have equated to separate subspecies is unclear. The original range of the aurochs was from the British Isles and southern Scandinavia, to northern Africa, the Middle East, India and central Asia. By the 13th century A.D., the aurochs' range was restricted to Poland, Lithuania, Moldavia, Transylvania and East Prussia. The right to hunt large animals on any land was restricted to nobles and gradually to the royal household. As the population of aurochs declined, hunting ceased but the royal court still required gamekeepers to provide open fields for the aurochs to graze in. The gamekeepers were exempted from local taxes in exchange for their service and a decree made poaching an aurochs punishable by death. In 1564, the gamekeepers knew of only 38 animals, according to the royal survey. The last recorded live aurochs, a female, died in 1627 in the Jaktorów Forest, Poland. The skull was later taken by the Swedish Army during the Swedish invasion of Poland (1655–1660) and is now the property of Livrustkammaren in Stockholm.
In the 1920s two German zoo directors (in Berlin and Munich), the brothers Heinz and Lutz Heck, attempted to breed the aurochs "back into existence" (see breeding back) from the domestic cattle that were their descendants. Their plan was based on the concept that a species is not extinct as long as all its genes are still present in a living population. The result is the breed called Heck Cattle, 'Recreated Aurochs', or 'Heck Aurochs', which bears an incomplete resemblance to what is known about the physiology of the wild aurochs.
Aurochs in art, history, mythology, and media
- The aurochs ("bour" in Romanian) was also the symbol of Moldavia; nowadays they can be found in the coat of arms of both Romania and Moldova. The horn of the aurochs is a charge of coat of arms of Lithuanian town Taurage. It is also present in the emblem of Kaunas, Lithuania and was part of the emblem of Bukovina during its time as a Kronland of Austria-Hungary.
- The last lines of Vladimir Nabokov's Lolita are: "I am thinking of aurochs and angels, the secret of durable pigments, prophetic sonnets, the refuge of art. And this is the only immortality you and I may share, my Lolita."
- East Slavic surnames Turenin, Turishchev, Turov, Turovsky originate from the East Slavic name of the species (Tur).
- American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, 4th edition (AHD4). Houghton Mifflin, 2000. Headwords aurochs, urus, wisent.
- Bunzel-Drüke, M. 2001. Ecological substitutes for Wild Horse (Equus ferus Boddaert, 1785 = E. przewalslii Poljakov, 1881) and Aurochs (Bos primigenius Bojanus, 1827). Natur- und Kulturlandschaft, Höxter/Jena, 4, 10 p. AFKP. Online pdf (298 kB)
- C. Julius Caesar. Caesar's Gallic War. Translator. W. A. McDevitte. Translator. W. S. Bohn. 1st Edition. New York. Harper & Brothers. 1869. Harper's New Classical Library.
- International Commission on Zoological Nomenclature. 2003. Opinion 2027 (Case 3010). Usage of 17 specific names based on wild species which are pre-dated by or contemporary with those based on domestic animals (Lepidoptera, Osteichthyes, Mammalia): conserved. Bull.Zool.Nomencl., 60:81-84.
- Merriam-Webster Unabridged (MWU). (Online subscription-based reference service of Merriam-Webster, based on Webster's Third New International Dictionary, Unabridged. Merriam-Webster, 2002.) Headword aurochs. Accessed 2007-06-02.
- Shaffer, Jim G. (1995). Cultural tradition and Palaeoethnicity in South Asian Archaeology. In: Indo-Aryans of Ancient South Asia. Ed. George Erdosy. ISBN 8121507901
- Shaffer, Jim G. (1999). Migration, Philology and South Asian Archaeology. In: Aryan and Non-Aryan in South Asia. Ed. Bronkhorst and Deshpande. ISBN 1-888789-04-2.
- Vuure, T. van. 2002. History, morphology and ecology of the Aurochs (Bos primigenius). Lutra 45-1. Online pdf (603 kB)
- Vuure, C. van. 2005. Retracing the Aurochs: History, Morphology and Ecology of an Extinct Wild Ox. Pensoft Publishers. Sofia-Moscow.
- Wilson, Don E. and DeeAnn M. Reeder: Mammals.
aurochs in Arabic: أرخص
aurochs in Belarusian (Tarashkevitsa): Тур
aurochs in Bulgarian: Тур (животно)
aurochs in Catalan: Ur (bòvid)
aurochs in Czech: Pratur
aurochs in Danish: Urokse
aurochs in German: Auerochse
aurochs in Estonian: Tarvas
aurochs in Spanish: Uro (bovino)
aurochs in Esperanto: Uro
aurochs in French: Aurochs
aurochs in Korean: 오록스
aurochs in Interlingua (International Auxiliary Language Association): Uro
aurochs in Italian: Bos taurus primigenius
aurochs in Hebrew: שור הבר האירופי
aurochs in Lithuanian: Tauras
aurochs in Dutch: Oeros
aurochs in Japanese: オーロックス
aurochs in Norwegian: Urokse
aurochs in Occitan (post 1500): Ur (bovid)
aurochs in Polish: Tur
aurochs in Portuguese: Auroque
aurochs in Romanian: Bour
aurochs in Russian: Тур (животное)
aurochs in Simple English: Aurochs
aurochs in Finnish: Alkuhärkä
aurochs in Swedish: Uroxe
aurochs in Ukrainian: Тур
aurochs in Chinese: 原牛